Tower of Silence Comprehensive Guide!
The Tower of Silence or the Zoroastrian Crypt contains two hollow stone towers called the older one by its creator, the Mankji Hatria (Zoroastrians of India) and the newer tower, built in the Qajar period, is called Golestan. It is said that one of the crypts was preferred because of the impatience of being able to build another. The Mankaji Tower is 15 m high and the Golestan Tower is 25 m 6 m high. There are still crypts in Iran, but the Zoroastrians are no longer using them. It is almost less than fifty years since the Zoroastrians no longer bury their dead in the old way because of the city’s expansion and prevention of air pollution. It should be noted that in Zoroastrianism indifference is strictly forbidden for the death of loved ones because, in Zoroastrianism, death is not the end of life and is the beginning of the continuation of mental happiness.
Use of tower of silence or Zoroastrian crypt
In the distant past, the Zoroastrians used to put human carcasses in what they believed to be impure mortar to feed the birds. In fact, the dead were transported from the house to the crypt by a person or persons known as the abuser, where they were handed over to the crypt and remained there until disintegrated. He would throw it into the middle of the well. This has been done to prevent soil contamination. Every few months, once or for all, at the end of each period of use of a crypt, the bones were poured with lime and sulfur or sharpened to burn the bones and to become ashes and by means of rainwater into the wells around the main well. All the burial work took from about six months to one year, from the burial to the bones.
Features of the Zoroastrian Tower of Silence
The inner surface of the Silence Tower is flat and round, all covered with large boulders consisting of three sections of female, male, and child. The location of these crystals, which are all outside the city, was meticulously calculated to prevent contamination to the city by wind and rain. They were also made of raw clay and plaster to prevent contamination by the dead.
Sections of the Zoroastrian Crypt
Chehel Soton Palace is one of the earliest buildings in which extensive ornamentation, mirrors, large murals, and wooden columns have been used with headstones. All the walls were decorated with stunning mirrors, glass, and colorful paintings and all the doors and windows were inlaid. The skill and mastery of the Iranians is well illustrated in the design of the palace, where the exterior of the mansion is so interconnected with its interior that it is impossible to determine where one ends and the other begins. The main porch and impressive porch with numerous columns are characteristic of the building. The architecture of this palace is a blend of Chinese, Iranian and French art. The Chehel Soton Mansion consists of a large (3m) main porch 17m wide and 14m height east. The porches of the octagon are made of sycamore and pine. The 110-meter-long, 16-meter-wide mansion in front of the mansion now gives the palace a unique freshness. In the past, water leaps in the middle of the hall from the mouths of the lions at the four corners of the pond, and the stone fountains that dotted in the small atmosphere around the mansion gave special protection to the mansion. Pool fittings in front of the palace were designed to see the image of the palace in the water and the darkness of the pool floor to reflect it even deeper.
- Road Since the crypt was a long distance from the settlements and somehow far from civilization, the road had to be used to reach it. Part of the road was used by the public to transport the body, but only from the crypts to those in charge of the crypt. Today, the road has been stepped up to make it easy for visitors to reach the crypt, but in the past, there were only a few small holes for specific people to cross.
- Stone or iron Door Wherever carcasses and corpses are, there are also predatory heads and shoulders. The danger has always been for the cellar and the corpses inside it, and one way to save the manor has been to use an iron or stone door.
- Inscriptions At the top of the cellar, there was an inscription with information on it. In many of the past monuments, inscriptions were commonplace and are now found in most monuments.
- Inside The inner surface of the cellar consists of a flat and round space covered by large boulders. This section is supposed to consist of three circular bands: The men’s section on the bottom circle bar is larger than the other circles and attached to the wall around the cellar. The female section is in the middle circle bar behind the men’s section. The children’s section is in the inner circle bar, which is closest to the center of the crypt.
- Bone place The inner surface of the cellar has a slope from the wall to the center of the slope and in the middle of the cellar reaches a deep well with a moving stone called the “Ervis” at the bottom. The deep well led to the four deepest wells around the crypt, one meter deep with all the wells filled with sand. The middle of the well is a stone and cement-covered cellar to prevent contamination when the wells are present. This well has been called “Sadadeh”, “Este Dun” or “Estudan” which means “bone” and is known among the Indians as “Stoupe”. The Stoudan was, in fact, where the remains of the bodies were dumped into the soil. According to religious beliefs, the rich and the poor at the time of their deaths in this well would be treated in the same way, implying that the world’s wealth was not used at the time of death. Of course, in some sources it is mentioned that the bones of the elders and the powerful were cast elsewhere as “Assadanah”, but this narrative does not fit very well with religious teachings, and even the structure of the crypts confirmed the existence of special wells.