History of Persia Introduction
Iranian history is what to consider the history of peoples who live on the frontiers of current Iran. Or the history of tribes and peoples who have somehow called themselves Iranian. They lived in the geography that encompasses present-day Iran and the lands that have historically been part of Greater Iran. Occasionally, history of persia begins with the arrival of the Aryans, also called Iran, on the Iranian plateau. But this does not mean that the Iranian plateau was devoid of civilization before the Aryans arrived. Prior to the Aryans‘ arrival on the Iranian plateau, many ancient civilizations had flourished, and some were still flourishing.
Iran’s history basically divides into two general parts: pre-Islamic Iran and post-Islamic Iran:
History of Iran before the Aryans
Before the Aryans, various ethnic groups settled in different parts of the Iranian plateau. In pre-Aryan history Iranian civilizations burnt down (in Sistan), Ilam civilization (in northern Khuzestan), Jiroft civilization (in Kerman), civilization inhabitants hill hill (in Kashan), The Urartu civilization (in Azerbaijan), the hills (in Nahavand) and the Kassian civilization (in Kermanshah and Lorestan), and the carpets in Tabaristan (in Mazandaran) were in Iranian territory.
The largest civilization in Iranian history has been the Elamite government, whose land in the southwest of Iran was more or less in line with Khuzestan. The capital of Elam was the city of Shush whose relics found there. Apparently, different parts of the kingdom have separate kings and each has its own kings.
Aryans’ migration to Iran within History of Persia
The Aryans are a broad branch of the white race whose ancestral land was probably north of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea around the rivers of Sihon and Jihon. They later moved to Europe and groups to Iran and India. As a result, Asians and their languages are referring to the basis of Indian and European languages. Aria means noble. The Aryans of India and Iran separated after a long time and shared legends and social organization, and language until their separation.
History of Persian in Ancient Ages
The history of ancient Iran is considering as the period of the formation of the Median state . It was until the end of the Sassanid rule and the Arab invasion of Iran.
The Medes were an Iranian of Aryan descent who settled in the western part of the Iranian plateau. The land of Azerbaijan in northwestern Iran was known as Median the same as the rest of Zagros. The capital is Medieval.
The Achaemenids of this dynasty brought the Persian tribes under their control. After him, his son reached a king in the Shushtar area. Later they made Pasargadae their center. Until Cyrus the Third (the Great), six kings ruled this family.
After Alexander’s death, his conquests were split between his commanders. This is why most of his Asian holdings, Iran, was the nucleus of the first Seleucus. Thus, Iran came under the Seleucid rule.
The Parthians praised the Greek civilization that had existed during the Seleucid period in Iran. Some Parthian kings were well acquainted with Greek literature. In addition, some Greek plays were performed at the court of Parthian kings.
The Sassanid were the royal dynasty of Iran during the history of Iran. Sassanid emperors, originally from Pars province, dominated much of the western Asian continent.
History of Iran after Islam
After the establishment of Islam in the land of Iran, as a result of the victory of the Muslim Arabs over the Sassanid and their conquest of Iran, there were many developments in the social, religious and political spheres of Iranian history.
Dissatisfied with the class discrimination existing in their country, the Iranians embraced Islam and tried to spread it, but never in the course of Iranian history did they conceal their opposition to the Umayyad and Abbasid domination of Iran and set up independent movements.
For the first time since the emergence of Islam in the history of Iran. The Taherian have proclaimed independence in eastern parts of Iran, such as Khorasan, and the Safarian have used foreign language instead of Arabic for the first time.
After the conquest of Shiraz and the establishment of their rule, the rulers of Al-Bouwy took the Baghdad route and turned the caliphate into a tool of their hands and took real power in their hands.
What has happened after Ghaznavid dynasty?
Ghaznavids declared themselves in the history of Iran as Ghazis or Muslim fighters and invaded lands like India.
The Seljuks conquered their rule by conquering the Ghaznavids and took control of all of Iran, and with the help of the great Iranian ministers and scholars, they consolidated their power, but were eventually overthrown by the Khwarazm monarchs.
Kharazmshahian rule was another rule in Iranian history that began with the Mongol invasion of Iran. The result of this invasion was the extinction of the Kharazmshahi dynasty and the plundering of cities and the massacre of the Iranian people, which resulted in the destruction of Iran’s economy and agriculture.
The Mongols quickly conquered Iranian soil and killed an Abbasid caliph during an army campaign in Baghdad.
After the Mongols, the Timurids invaded Iran and again invaded and plundered the Iranian land.
Shiite’s kingdom in Iran; How & When ?
For the first time in Iranian history, Shiite religion was introduced as the official religion of Iran. The Shiite religion, with its political and social characteristics, united Iran and secured its national identity in the face of lethal invasions and blows to the Ottoman Empire, and once again throughout history Iran was able to stand as a great political and religious power.
During the reign of Shah Abbas Kabir, the city of Isfahan was selected as the capital of Iran, achieving greatness and glory, with many of the monuments of that period remaining to this day. The Safavids were removed from the Iranian History Page as a result of the Afghan invasion and capture of Isfahan.
Nader Shah Afshar defeated the Afghans and conquered all the territory of Iran and established the Afsharian dynasty. After the Afsharids, the Zandians relied on Arika for power, and during their rule, the city of Shiraz was chosen as the capital and became a magnificent city.
The Qajar era was one of the periods in Iranian history when the influence of colonial powers such as Britain and Tsarist Russia expanded in Iran.
Reza Khan came to power in the year 1924 AD and announced the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty. During the Pahlavi era, the Iranian oil industry was nationalized under the leadership of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, and this led to the rise of independence movements that eventually led to the Iranian Revolution in 1979th year.