Golestan Palace , what to know at the begging ?
The Golestan Palace Complex is a remnant of the historic citadel of Tehran, which once shone like a jewel in the citadel. The Tehran Historical Citadel Foundation dates back to the Safavid period and the time of King Tahmasb I. The citadel was rebuilt in the Karim Khan Zand period and was dedicated to the court and residence of Qajar kings during the Qajar period; it is said that Nasser al-Din Shah made many changes in the Golestan complex during his lifetime. More than one-third of the citadel was in Dar al-Hokmah and the king’s residence. Like the traditional houses of Iran, this house had two parts, exterior and interior. The outer part consisted of two parts: the courtyard or the courtyard and the other was a square garden called the Golestan Garden, which separated the Indo courtyard from buildings.
To the east of Dar al-Hakumah and north of the Golestan Garden was an inner courtyard, a large courtyard, with the residence of the kings’ wives and the king’s dormitory built in the middle of them, forming the harem. The complex was demolished alongside the current building of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance. The courtyard of the marble bed or Dar al-Hokmah was located on the king’s sitting bed and holding the throne and the place of government. Whereas the garden of the Golestan Garden was a courtyard with private meetings, ceremonies and court nights. Golestan Palace is one of the most unique historical collections of Iran for more than 5 years.
However, the history of the Golestan Palace goes back to the time of King Abbas Safavid (6 AH) and part of a travelogue by Pietro Delavale (dated 6 AH / The beginning of the royal citadel) describing the city of Tehran with the Chenarsistan surrounding the royal palace. But this is the beginning of the area we now know as the Golestan Palace in the days of Karim Khan, and between the years of 1 and 2 AH, with the construction of a bunker.
The real significance of the citadel became more serious during the time of the Qajar dynasty. He used the Iranian internal crisis in the late Zandiyeh period and after Karim Khan’s death. Qajar tribes of Gorgan, their center of residence, moved to the southern slopes of Alborz, the provinces of Tehran and Damghan, and tried gradually to make their way to Fars, the capital. Zandieh’s government and power to open. However, Lord Karzen in the book Iran and the Case of Iran, about the choice of Tehran to the capital by Mr Mohammad Khan and the establishment of a royal seat in the city, close to his tribal estate in Gorgan, and proximity to the Russians and under their care. The election is believed to have returned to Tehran after the conquest of Lotfali Khan Zand, crowned in the name of the King of Iran.
The Golestan name refers to this complex in the foundation of a gallery called “Golestan” which was built by Agha Mohammad Khan of Qajar and was completed in 7 AH by Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Golestan palace dates from the Safavid era to the modern era. Changes have been made. Although the Golestan palace was founded in the reign of Shah Abbas Safavid in the year 4 AH, with the construction of four gardens inside the fence of Shah Tahmasb and later in the time of King Solomon Safavid, it was formed in the same area as the Chenaran Shah Abbasi, but today those foundations It is not known; and the existing possessions of the Golestan Palace have been restricted to some of Zandiyeh’s works and buildings from the earliest times.
Golestan Palace is the name of a collection of monuments located in the citadel of Tehran. The palace’s buildings have been constructed and completed at various times. It is one of the most important monuments of the country in terms of architecture, tourist attraction and the value of artistic and historical artifacts, which has witnessed the presence of numerous domestic and foreign tourists throughout the year. Construction began on King Abbas’s Safavid era and was completely changed by the time Karim Khan Zand was added to the court. After the victory over Lotfali Khan Zand, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar took the coronation in the palace, followed by Fath Ali Shah and then Nasser al-Din Shah, where they celebrated their coronation and multiplied the importance of the monument.
Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar was influenced by the architecture of these countries due to his many trips to European countries and made many changes to the palace. It has historically witnessed very important events such as the Constitutional Revolution and the Pahlavi First and Second Coronations. The Golestan Palace was used during the Pahlavi era to house presidents as well as special foreign guests. The palace, with its numerous palaces, can be divided into two parts: the inner and outer parts, of which only the outer part is left. Reza Shah Pahlavi demolished the interior of the building due to his hatred of the Qajar kings and built the Ministry of Finance instead.
Golestan Palace consists of various sections: Hall of Salam, Ayena Hall, Marble Bed Ivan, Karim Khani, Chadarkhaneh, Tablecloth Hall, Berlian Hall, Windmill Hall, Diamond Hall, Dormitory Building, Shams al-Amara Palace and Abbas Palace.
Porch of marble bed with 4 pieces of marble in different sizes, is one of the spectacular places of Golestan Palace. The marble throne was one of the monuments of the beginning of the reign of Mr Mohammad Khan Qajar and his coronation ceremony was held there. During the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, this hall was used to store foreign gifts. The decoration and painting of the hall is very attractive and similar to the buildings of the Zandieh era and were carved by Professor Mohammad Ebrahim Esfahani.
Shams al-Amara Palace is the most prominent building of the Golestan Palace and the most privileged building on the eastern side of the complex. The building was built on five floors after Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar’s first trip to Europe and impressed with high-rise buildings, with five-story Iranian architecture and style, also known as the Sun Mansion. The construction of the building began on the order of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar in the year 6 AH and its architect was Professor Ali Mohammad Kashi.
Windmill Mansion is another sightseeing of the Golestan Palace that was built on the south side of the complex during the time of Fath Ali Shah. The mansion’s hall has fascinating paintings and mirrors, and the reason it is named for the windmill is the presence of four tall windmills decorated with blue, black, yellow, mosaic and golden tiles.
During the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar of the Golestan Palace, during his reign (nearly 5 years) and his visit as Europe’s first monarch to Europe, his three trips to Europe underwent major changes.
Mirror Hall– Pearl of Golestan Palace
The Hall of the Mirror is located to the west of the Hall of Salam, above the head of the palace, and is one of the famous halls of the Golestan Palace. The construction of the Mirror Hall began at the same time as the Hall of Salam and apparently ended in 1294 AH. At the beginning of moving objects and artifacts from the old museum to the new museum, this hall was dedicated to the Peacock Throne and the Crown of Kian. In addition to its ornamentation, the Hall of Fame is largely due to its famous painting by the late Mirza Mohammad Khan Kamal al-Molk Ghaffari in 1309 AH and is now kept in the Golestan Palace.
Hello Hall ( Salam Hall)
After Nasser al-Din Shah’s first trip to Europe in 1290 AH and visiting the major museums and galleries of Western countries, he decided to create a museum similar to the European museums in the citadel. The demolished mansion was demolished and instead was built on the northwest side of the Ivory Hall, the new Golestan Palace, the Golestan Mirror Hall, and the Museum Room.
The construction of the Museum Room began in 1291 AH and ended in 1294 AH. However, due to the large decorations and arrangement of objects under the direct supervision of the Shah, its operation continued until 1299 AH.
From the very beginning, it was founded to establish and build a museum. But after moving the peacock’s throne from the old museums and the Hall of Mirrors to it, and holding special greetings and ceremonies there, it gradually became the name of the Salam Hall. This hall housed the most exquisite objects and artifacts donated, especially royal jewels. In 1345, due to the coronation ceremony of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in this hall, the museum was completely transformed and became today. Downstairs there is a house hall. Today, the basement of the lower basement is divided into two parts: the eastern part with a hall dedicated to the display of fine arts in the Qajar era, and the western part with a gallery dedicated to presenting Iranian artists’ paintings in the Qajar era.
Diamond Hall – The most royal part of Golestan Palace
On the south side of the Golestan Palace, behind the windmill, is the Diamond Hall. The foundation of this hall was founded in the time of Fath Ali Shah, but under Nasser al-Din Shah changed its appearance and decorations. It is called the diamond because of its interior mirrors.
In Nasser al-Din Shah most of the arches and arches of this hall were converted to arches or Roman arches, like many of the other palaces in the Golestan Palace, and the walls of the hall were covered with various types of exterior wallpaper. The hall is one of Fathali Shahi’s buildings and is dedicated to the Museum of His Works and Objects.
Behind the Mirror Hall, on the west side of the Berlian Hall, is Ivory Hall. The date of construction of this hall and the basement below it is not known, but it was originally built before the Hall of Salam and the Hall of Mirrors and is one of the buildings of the Nasserian period that later changed in its appearance to the present day. In this hall, during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, gifts of kings from foreign states were kept and at the time of the reception was held and formal parties were held. Therefore, major changes have been made in its interior arrangement. The basement below the mansion is dedicated to displaying paintings.
Located in the upper floor of the Ivory Hall, the mansion is one of the Nasserian monuments, and once the aqueduct flowed from the fountain inside the courtyard into the palaces of the palace. The mansion has undergone changes at various times and has now become the permanent exhibition of paintings by European artists in the 19th century, including works by famous painters such as Simon van Gleiber, Aivazovsky
This building is the most prominent building of Golestan Palace and the most privileged building on the east side of the complex. Before traveling to Europe, Nasser al-Din Shah was eager to see tall buildings, such as those in his capital, that he could see from above, with a view of the city and the surrounding landscape. Construction of the mansion began in 1282 AH and ended after two years and was called Shams al-Amarah, and the date of its construction is accounted for by the king’s palace. Its design and concept seem to have been from Muir al-Malik and its architect, Ali Muhammad Kashi.
Karim Khan’s privacy
In the northwest corner of the Golestan area, wall to wall there is a Hall, a covered building and a pillar with a three-lane porch that has a boiling basin in its center and most of the king’s aqueduct water is pumped from the middle of the basin. This part of the Golestan palace, called Khan Khan or Karimkhani’s backyard, as the name implies, is one of Karim Khan’s Zand monuments and was part of his backyard. The building was apparently built in 1173 AH and most of it was demolished during the time of Nasser al-Din Shah, who was building a new Hall of Salam, and today only a part of it has survived.
The windmill was built during the time of Fath Ali Shah in the south of Golestan Garden. But in the time of Nasser al-Din Shah, major occupation took place and it is today. There is a large basement beneath the hall and the four corners of which there are four long windshields made of yellow, blue, yellow and black tiles with gold nails. The air in the basin and the hall and the rooms is cooled by them.
Late in the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, the Ottoman king, King Sultan Abdul Hamid, sent some valuable and precious furniture to the Shah of Iran. Because at that time almost all the royal palaces and halls were adorned with numerous signs and furnishings, so Nasser al-Din Shah decided to build a new palace in the southwest corner of Golestan, which was formerly the place of the fortress or the tower of Agham Mohammad Khan. Put the Sultan in it.
The building was named Abyss because of the white color of the building, which was carved and carved in 18th-century European buildings, and because of the stairs and sidewalks of the white marble palace. From the very beginning, the Abiyeh Palace was dedicated to the work of the Chancellors, and government meetings were held in the Sultan Abdul Hamid Hall until 1333 AD.
In 1344, due to the coronation of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi on the west side and the lower floor of the building, changes were made and since 1347 it has been transformed into an anthropological museum.
On the east side of the Ivory Hall, there are several beautiful and upscale halls and rooms that are lower than the level of the Ivory Hall and other halls. During the time of Nasser al-Din Shah, the old citadels of the citadel were old and destroyed, often demolishing them and replacing them with new buildings. At this time they destroyed the crystal mansion and replaced it with the present one. The mansion was used during Pahlavi times to hold formal meetings with foreign heads of state and ceremonies.
The gallery is the site of the treasure trove of paintings by the artists of the Qajar period in which the evolution of painting in Iran and the works of renowned artists has been on display. Famous painters whose works have been exhibited include Mahmoud Khan Saba, Mehr Ali, Kamal al-Molk, Ismail Jalabar, Abolhassan Thani or Sani al-Molk and Mohammad Hassan Afshar.
On the northwest side of Golestan Garden, from Karim Khan’s backyard, we reach the main museum hall or main museum building. It is the first royal and governmental museum in Iran founded by Nasser al-Din Shah. After traveling to Europe and visiting major Western museums and galleries, the Shah decided to establish a museum similar to European museums in the royal citadel. This hall was originally designed to establish and establish a museum, and the official salute of it gradually became the Hall of Salam. In 1345, due to the coronation ceremony of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the museum was decorated in its entirety. It has become today.
On the lower floor of the Hall of Salam is a basin dedicated to the eastern part of the Qajar period dedicated to fine arts and crafts.